What is One Dimensional and Two Dimensional Lathe Turning Operations

What is One Dimensional and Two Dimensional Lathe Turning
Operations

Machining refers to cutting operations that are based
on the removal of material from an originally rough-shaped
workpiece, for example via casting or forging. Thus, in the
literature, such operations have been often called metal
cutting, material removal, and chip removal techniques.
Herein the term machining is used as an all-encompassing
term that includes the fabrication of metal as well as
nonmetal parts.

One Dimensional Lathe turning Operations: 

In one-dimensional turning, a (single-point) cutting
tool mounted on a carriage travels parallel to the axis of
rotation of the workpiece, normally held by a chuck and a
tailstock (for longer parts)  This feed motion of the
tool reduces the radius of the rotational workpiece by an
amount equal to the depth of the cut in a direction normal to
the feed motion axis (in the same plane).

One Dimensional Tuning
One Dimensional Tuning 

Two Dimensional Lathe turning Operations: 
In two-dimensional turning, the tool travels and cuts
into the workpiece in the feed direction as well as in the
perpendicular depth of- cut direction, thus yielding
workpiece profiles with a variable diameter (Fig.1)

two Dimensional Tuning
Two Dimensional Lathe Machines 

Both one-dimensional and two-dimensional
turning operations can be carried out on manual or on
automatically controlled lathes

The major process variables in
turning are the feed rate, f, the cutting velocity, V, and
the depth of cut, a. The feed rate of turning is equal to the
travel rate of the tool in the feed direction, normally
defined in the units of mm/rev (or inches/rev)—i.e., distance
traveled by the tool per each revolution
of the spindle/workpiece.

The cutting velocity of turning
refers to the linear velocity of the workpiece at the point
of contact with the tool:

V= 3.14N [ (d1+d2 ) /2]

where,
N is the spindle’s (i.e., workpiece’s) rotational
speed, defined in the units of revolutions per minute
(rpm), 

d1 and d2 refer to the initial and postcutting
diameters of the workpiece, respectively, defined in the
units of meters or feet, together, yielding the units of
m/min (or ft/min) for V

Turning of a workpiece is normally
carried in several passes: in the first pass (or several
initial passes), the objective is removal of material at
increased rates (achieved by selecting a high feed rate) at
the expense of surface finish quality; and in the last
fine-turning pass the objective is meeting dimensional
integrity and surface quality requirements using a reduced
feed rate for the same cutting velocity, so that for each
rotation of the spindle, the distance that the tool travels
in the feed direction is considerably shortened, thus
providing maximum continuity on the workpiece’s
surface.




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