CONCEPT OF AUTOMATION
Automation can be deﬁned as the technology used for the
application of integrated mechanical, electronic and computer
based systems in the operation and control Of production
Automation of production system means :
(1) Automation of manufacturing facilities, or
(ii) Automation of manufacturing support systems, or
(iii) Automation of both the facilities and the manufacturing
Automation is not new but has been in use in the industry
since quite sometime.The automation seems to be a feasible
solution for improving the productivity, quality and
Automation is not economically feasible in low scale
production. However, as the volume of production goes on
increasing, automation becomes more and more economically
Some of the examples of automation of processes in
production systems are as follows:
(I) NC and CNC machines,
(ii) Automatic assembly machines,
(iii) Automated transfer lines,
(iv) Automatic assembly lines,
(v) Industn’al robots,
(Vi) Automated material handling systems,
(vii) Automated storage systems,
(viii) Automated inspection and quality control systems,
(ix) Automated feedback and process control equipment,
(x) Computer aided production planning and control.
NEED FOR AUTOMATION:
1. To increase productivity :
- The automation of manufacturing operations usually
increases production rate.
- This means greater output per hour of labour input.
- Thus, automation leads to increase in labour
2. To reduce cost of production :
The automation reduces the labour cost and increases the rate
of production, thereby reducing the cost of production.
3. To improve product quality :
The automation not only results in higher production rates
than manual operations but also improves the product quality.
4. To mitigate the effects of labour shortages.
In developed countries, where there is shortage of labour,
automated operations are used as a substitute for labour.
5.To reduce production time :
The automation reduces the time required for manufacturing
6. To avoid high cost of not automating :
- The automation exhibits overall benefits like: improved
product quality, high better customer rate of production,
higher salaries, better labour relations, satisfaction. and
better company image.
The companies without automation are likely to find
Disadvantageous position as compared to the companies with
7.To have better control over manufacturing activities
Automation provides better control over entire manufacturing
activity of a company.
8. To improve worker safety :
- The automation can completely replace the worker,
especially in hazardous operations like:spray painting
welding. chemical processing. etc, thereby improving the
- The automation has changed the role of worker from active
participation to a supervision.
9. To reduce or eliminate routine manual and clerical
Automation reduces/eliminates routine manual and clerical
tasks which are boring. fatiguing, and irksome, thereby
improving the general level of working conditions.